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Question and Answer

SRIRAM'S IAS

 Q. 45. Elaborate on moral relativism
Ans.
It is the position that moral or ethical positions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. It does not deny outright the truth-value or justification of moral statements but affirms relative forms of them. It may be described by the common saying: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”.

Moral Relativists point out that humans are not omniscient, and history is replete with examples of individuals and societies acting in the name of an infallible truth later demonstrated to be more than fallible, so we should be very wary of basing important ethical decisions on a supposed absolute claim. Absolutes also tend to inhibit experimentation and foreclose possible fields of inquiry which might lead to progress in many fields, as well as stifling the human spirit and quest for meaning. In addition, the short term proves itself vastly superior in the ethical decision-making process than the relatively unknown long-term.

Relativistic positions may specifically see moral values as applicable only within certain cultural boundaries (Cultural Relativism) or in the context of individual preferences. A related but slightly different concept is that of Moral Pluralism (or Value Pluralism), the idea that there are several values which may be equally correct and fundamental, and yet in conflict with each other (e.g. the moral life of a nun is incompatible with that of a mother, yet there is no purely rational measure of which is preferable).

An extreme relativist position might suggest that judging the moral or ethical judgments or acts of another person or group has no meaning at all, though most relativists propound a more limited version of the theory.

Moral Relativism generally stands in contrast to Moral Absolutism, Moral Universalism.
 Q. 44. What is the importance of India Afghanistan Friendship Dam in the bilateral relations?
Ans.
Salma Dam, officially the Afghan-India Friendship Dam, is a hydroelectric and irrigation dam project located on the Hari River in Chishti Sharif District of Herat Province in western Afghanistan. The Afghan cabinet renamed the Salma Dam to the Afghan-India Friendship Dam in a move to strengthen relations between the two countries. The hydroelectric plant produces 42 MW of power in addition to providing irrigation for 75,000 hectares of farmland (stabilising the existing irrigation of 35,000 hectares and development of irrigation facilities to an additional 40,000 hectares of land). The dam was opened in June 2016 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi along with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani. It is a part of our India's soft power. It strengthens India's economic relation with Afghanistan. 

India seeks to expand its economic presence in Afghanistan as the international coalition fighting the Taliban withdraws combat forces. Especially, it wants to improve transport connectivity and economic collaboration with countries in Central and South Asia.  India and Iran inked a transit agreement on transporting goods to landlocked Afghanistan. The Indian government is investing more than US$100 million in the expansion of the Chabahar port in south-eastern Iran which will serve as a hub for the transportation of transit goods. Besides as a goodwill gesture, India i constructed a new Parliament complex for the Afghan government which was inaugurated on 25 December 2015 by Indian PM  Narendra Modi.
 Q. 43. Elaborate on moral relativism
Ans.
It is the position that moral or ethical positions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. It does not deny outright the truth-value or justification of moral statements but affirms relative forms of them. It may be described by the common saying: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”.

Moral Relativists point out that humans are not omniscient, and history is replete with examples of individuals and societies acting in the name of an infallible truth later demonstrated to be more than fallible, so we should be very wary of basing important ethical decisions on a supposed absolute claim. Absolutes also tend to inhibit experimentation and foreclose possible fields of inquiry which might lead to progress in many fields, as well as stifling the human spirit and quest for meaning. In addition, the short term proves itself vastly superior in the ethical decision-making process than the relatively unknown long-term.

Relativistic positions may specifically see moral values as applicable only within certain cultural boundaries (Cultural Relativism) or in the context of individual preferences. A related but slightly different concept is that of Moral Pluralism (or Value Pluralism), the idea that there are several values which may be equally correct and fundamental, and yet in conflict with each other (e.g. the moral life of a nun is incompatible with that of a mother, yet there is no purely rational measure of which is preferable).

An extreme relativist position might suggest that judging the moral or ethical judgments or acts of another person or group has no meaning at all, though most relativists propound a more limited version of the theory.

Moral Relativism generally stands in contrast to Moral Absolutism, Moral Universalism.
 Q. 42. Are there any "traditional values" that have observed? Describe your observations.
Ans.
.Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. "Traditional values" means the values coming from tradition rather than any specific philosopher, moralist, or writer.

It can mean the actual values that are claimed or perceived to have remained relatively unchanged for centuries like festivals, beliefs about marriage and family, cuisine etc.

The term can also refer to an intention to preserve ancient or traditional customs and values against anything deemed "innovation." It is generally fair to say that usually traditional values tend, by definition, toward conservatism.

The usage of "traditional values" can in some cases imply that said values, in being traditional, are better than values that are non-traditional as they have survived for so long.
 Q. 41. In the context of intellectual property, what are moral rights?
Ans.
Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works which are generally recognized in law. Moral rights are personal rights that connect the creator of a work to their work. They are about being properly named or credited when artiste’s work is used. Moral rights require that artiste’s name is always shown with his work. This is called right of attribution. For example:
  • artiste’s name should always appear next to artwork in an exhibition
  • artiste’s name should always appear in the credits of a film he performed in
  • artiste’s name should always appear with any writing he have published
Anyone who creates artistic works, dramatic works, musical works, literary works or films have morals rights in relation to their work. Performers in live performances or in recorded performance also have moral rights relating to their performance. Moral rights also require that artiste’s work is not treated in any way that hurts his reputation. No one can change artiste’s work without his permission.
 Q. 40. From the experience with implementing MGNREGA for about a decade in the country, describe the preconditions for its success.
Ans.
One, availability of strong technical support to the main implementing agency, the gram panchayat; two, capacities to undertake decentralised planning exercises and creation of a robust shelf of works; three, awareness among MGNREGA work-seekers of their entitlements and procedures under the programme; four, active and vibrant gram sabhas, which debate and decide the works to be undertaken and all procedures related to the programme; five, open and effective social audits that check corruption; six, accountable gram panchayats, where the leadership responds to the legitimate demands and grievances of the people; and seven, a system that ensures timely payment of wages.
 Q. 39. What is Art.370? What are the main provisions of the Article ?
Ans.
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is a 'temporary provision' which grants special autonomous status to Jammu & Kashmir.  J&K can have a separate Constitution under it. Under Part XXI of the Constitution of India, which deals with "Temporary, Transitional and Special provisions", the state of Jammu & Kashmir has been accorded special status under Article 370. All the provisions of the Constitution which are applicable to other states are not applicable to J&K. For example, till 1965, J&K had a Sadr-e-Riyasat for governor and prime minister in place of chief minister.
  
According to this article, except for defence, foreign affairs, finance and communications, Parliament needs the state government's concurrence for applying all other laws. Thus the state's residents live under a separate set of laws, including those related to citizenship, ownership of property, and fundamental rights, as compared to other Indians. As a result of this provision, Indian citizens from other states cannot purchase land or property in Jammu & Kashmir. Under Article 370, the Centre has no power to declare financial emergency under Article 360 in the state. It can declare emergency in the state only in case of war or external aggression. The Union government can therefore not declare emergency on grounds of internal disturbance unless it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the state government. Name and boundaries of the State cannot be altered without the consent of its legislature. Right to property is still a Fundamental Right.
 Q. 38. What is Gaia and why is it useful?
Ans.
Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed  to construct the largest and most precise 3D space catalog ever made  totalling approximately 1 billion astronomical objects, mainly stars but also planets, comets, asteroids and quasars among others. The spacecraft will monitor each of its target stars about 70 times over a period of five years to study the precise motion of each star relative to theMilky Way galaxy. This will involve approximately 1% of the Milky Way population .

This massive stellar census will provide the  data to tackle a wide range of important questions related to the origin, structure, and evolutionary history of our galaxy.
 Q. 37. What is a DNA microchip? How does it work? What are the benefits?
Ans.
Scientists know that a mutation - or alteration - in a particular gene's DNA often results in a certain disease. However, it can be very difficult to develop a test to detect these mutations, because most large genes have many regions where mutations can occur. For example, researchers believe that mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 cause as many as 60 percent of all cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. But there is not one specific mutation responsible for all of these cases. Researchers have already discovered over 800 different mutations in BRCA1 alone.

The DNA microchip is a new tool used to identify mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2. The chip, which consists of a small glass plate encased in plastic, is manufactured somewhat like a computer microchip. On the surface, each chip contains thousands of short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA sequences, which together add up to the normal gene in question.

Microchips are being developed that speed up DNA analysis which could help treat bacterial infections in future. It was used to identify the rare strain of E. coli that infected more than 3,000 people in Germany - the first time "genomics" have been used to identify the characteristics of a bug during an outbreak.
 
If  a person has a particular kind of bacterial infection, we can find the DNA sequence of the bacteria and then choose an antibiotic which specifically  targets  that kind of bacteria, rather than giving a broad spectrum antibiotic.

Genetic tests are increasingly used to help doctors target medicines more accurately, but analysing them remains a long and expensive process.A new kind of DNA machine that uses a microchip can analyse DNA in just hours. DNA analysis in lab still takes about two weeks, but we can see a future where that time will be cut dramatically and DNA tests will be far more common.
One of the objectives is to make DNA sequencing much cheaper than it is today. If it becomes cheaper its use will become more widespread.It heralds a future where faster, cheaper DNA sequencers could be common in surgeries and clinics.

The power of these genetic tests are going to be in determining which drugs we will be treated with and at what dosage, determined by our genetics and how well we metabolise drugs.
 Q. 36. What are real estate investment trusts (REIT)? How do they benefit investors and the market?
Ans.
A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases, operates income-producing real estate. REITs own commercial real estate. Some REITs also engage in financing real estate. The REITs are similar to mutual funds. REITs can be publicly or privately held. Public REITs may be listed on public stock exchanges.

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) recently announced guidelines for the creation of real estate investment trusts (REITs) in India. REITs are expected to be operational in 2015. Essentially, REITs will pool money from investors and invest them in income-generating real estate offering them a way to diversify their portfolios by investing in property. After collecting money, REITs will issue units to investors, which will then be listed on exchange for buying and selling. This will help establish a new asset class. For developers, it would improve property market transparency, smoothen volatile property cycles, and potentially lower the cost of capital.
 Q. 35. What are autoimmune diseases? What is their effect?
Ans.
Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). This may be restricted to certain organs or involve a particular tissue in different places.

A large number of autoimmune diseases are recognized.

It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the top ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years. A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than 80 illnesses caused by autoimmunity.

Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body). Chronic means that the signs and symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and often for many years.

In lupus, something goes wrong with the immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs ("foreign invaders," like the flu). Normally our immune system produces proteins called antibodies that protect the body from these invaders. Autoimmune means our immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and our body’s healthy tissues ("auto" means "self") and creates auto-antibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissue. These auto-antibodies cause inflammation, pain, and damage in various parts of the body.
The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication that decreases the immune response.
 Q. 34. One of the technologies that the USA is said to have offered to India is
Ans.
One such technology is the magnetic catapult- makes it possible for larger planes to take off from smaller ships. The Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) is a system under development by the United States Navy. The main advantage is that this system allows for a more graded acceleration, inducing less stress on the aircraft's airframe. Other advantages include lower system weight, lower cost, and decreased maintenance requirements. It also will provide the ability to launch aircraft that are both heavier or lighter than the conventional system can accommodate. In addition the system has limited requirements for fresh water, reducing the need for energy-intensive desalination.
 Q. 33. "Indian Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (ISEER) has benefits at the individual and macro levels." Substantiate.
Ans.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) introduced a new star rating methodology called Indian Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (ISEER) for air conditioners. This evolved rating methodology factors in variance in higher temperature in India and rates air conditioners accordingly. Consumers can now purchase air conditioners with higher efficiency leading to lower electricity bills. Keeping the performance of air conditioners during higher temperature in mind, ISEER will address the different climatic zones in India and higher temperature. ISEER measures energy efficiency of air conditioners based on a weighted average of the performance at outside temperatures between 24 and 43 degree C based on Indian weather data. 
 Q. 32. "Microgrids are the answer for the plan goal of round-the-clock power for all by 2022."Explain.
Ans.
Microgrid is a small standalone system connected to solar panels which can supply power to about 100 households. In this model, a customer registers with the microgrid owner with a monthly subscription, and the service provider provides him solar power for two lights, a fan and cell phone charging socket.
 
A customer would spend Rs 100. It is cheaper than kerosene and has been growing rapidly.
A microgrid costs under Rs 60,000 to set up and the project costs get recovered in three years -- including maintenance, upgrades and other overheads. Households save money each month which helps ensure payments. These micro-economics are sound, low-risk and sustainable and are attractive for investors.It has to prospects that every village in India will soon be electrified, thanks to the solar microgrid revolution.
 
With such clear economics, more companies are looking at the sector. People in the industry see the business opportunity here now as there are hundreds of villages with no electricity and it doesn't make economic sense for the government to put up a grid" .
 
Firms say that while for the immediate term, lending from NABARD would help, to take this on a longer term, government support would be required in terms of giving service providers protection and status to function like a state electricity utility.
 
Micro grid holds the key to lighting and digitally connecting millions of lives. The Centre’s plan to supply electricity 24/7 to all parts of India in five years needs microgrids as a practical solution to provide electricity to off-grid and inaccessible areas.
 Q. 31. Adam's Bridge and the importance of Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project.
Ans.
Adam's Bridge also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka.
 
The bridge is 18 miles (30 km) long and separates the Gulf of Mannar (southwest) from the Palk Strait (northeast). Some of the sandbanks are dry and the sea in the area is very shallow, being only 3 ft to 30 ft (1 m to 10 m) deep in places, which hinders navigation.
Hindu believers hold it as the structure that Lord Rama and his army of apes and monkeys built to reach demon king Ravana`s Lanka.
 
Today, ships bound for India`s eastern coast have to circle around the entire island of Sri Lanka to reach Tuticorin, Chennai, Vizag, Paradip and other ports.
 
Therefore, a project titled Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project was mooted by the Government of India and a feasibility study ordered in the 1990s.
 
Successful completion of the project would cut travelling by about 350 nautical miles and will save 10 to 30 hours` sailing time. Plans were also drawn up to develop 13 minor ports in India, and fishing harbours and other infrastructure in both India and Sri Lanka.
 
The project involves creating a 83-km-long deepwater channel that will link Mannar with Palk Strait by extensive dredging and removal of the limestone shoals that constitute the Ram Sethu. It will bring down shipping costs and add to India`s exchequer in the form of transit fees.
 
The project has been condemned and opposed by a wide spectrum of the Indian people. Hindu outfits have come down on the plans to destroy something built by Lord Rama.
 
Some environmentalists opposed it as they hold it would destroy and destabilise the aquatic flora and fauna of the area.
 
With China’s influence in Sri Lanka increasing, India needs to explore alternative shipping routes and the project becomes more attractive for that reason.
 Q. 30. Kwarizmi is a Persian scholar with an Indian cultural connection- Clarify.
Ans.
Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, earlier transliterated as Algoritmi (780 – 850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer during the Abbasid Caliphate, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
 
In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world. His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. In Renaissance Europe, he was considered the original inventor of algebra, although it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources. Some words reflect the importance of al-Khwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. "Algebra" is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations.
 
 Q. 29. What are autoimmune diseases? What is their effect?
Ans. Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). This may be restricted to certain organs or involve a particular tissue in different places.
A large number of autoimmune diseases are recognized.
 
It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the top ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years. A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than 80 illnesses caused by autoimmunity.
 
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body). Chronic means that the signs and symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and often for many years.
 
In lupus, something goes wrong with the immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs ("foreign invaders," like the flu). Normally our immune system produces proteins called antibodies that protect the body from these invaders. Autoimmune means our immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and our body’s healthy tissues ("auto" means "self") and creates auto-antibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissue. These auto-antibodies cause inflammation, pain, and damage in various parts of the body.
 
The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication that decreases the immune response.
 Q. 28. What are reproductive rights and how far are they available practically to women in India?
Ans.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction. Reproductive rights may include some or all of the following:
a. the right to legal and safe abortion
b. the right to birth control
c. freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception
d. the right to access good-quality reproductive healthcare
e. the right to education and access in order to make free and informed reproductive choices
 
Reproductive rights may also include the right to receive education about sexually transmitted infections.
 
Women in India enjoy these rights but practically the limitations are due to lack of literacy; absence of institutional facilities; socially inferior status, for example, the tragedies from women-centered sterilisations as seen in Bilaspur in 2015. The draft surrogacy Bill 2016 , while it enhances the reproductive  health of the surrogate mother,   is is also criticised for denying women their reproductive choices. 26 weeks maternity leave granted by Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill 2016 is another example of women's reproductive rights being  granted.
 Q. 27. What are autoimmune diseases? What is their effect?
Ans.
Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). This may be restricted to certain organs or involve a particular tissue in different places.
A large number of autoimmune diseases are recognized. It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the top ten leading causes of death among women in all age groups up to 65 years. A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening. There are more than 80 illnesses caused by autoimmunity.
Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body). Chronic means that the signs and symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and often for many years.
In lupus, something goes wrong with the immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs ("foreign invaders," like the flu). Normally our immune system produces proteins called antibodies that protect the body from these invaders. Autoimmune means our immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and our body’s healthy tissues ("auto" means "self") and creates auto-antibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissue. These auto-antibodies cause inflammation, pain, and damage in various parts of the body. The treatment of autoimmune diseases is typically with immunosuppression—medication that decreases the immune response.
 Q. 26. Ganges River dolphin (Susu) - 'National Aquatic Animal' of India
Ans.
It inhabits the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. This vast area has been altered by the construction of more than 50 dams and other irrigation-related projects, with dire consequences for the river dolphins.
 
The Ganges River dolphin lives in one of the world's most densely populated areas, and is threatened by removal of river water and siltation arising from deforestation, pollution and entanglement in fisheries nets. In addition, alterations to the river due to barrages are also separating populations. Total population of the Ganga river dolphin is estimated to be between 2,500-3,000 in its entire distribution range, out of which more than 80% is within the Indian territory.
 
This dolphin is among the four "obligate" freshwater dolphins - the other three are the baiji now likely extinct from the Yangtze river in China, the bhulan of the Indus in Pakistan and the boto of the Amazon River in Latin America. Although there are several species of marine dolphins whose ranges include some freshwater habitats, these four species live only in rivers and lakes.
 
Being a mammal, the Ganges River dolphin cannot breathe in the water and must surface every 30-120 seconds. Because of the sound it produces when breathing, the animal is popularly referred to as the 'Susu'.
 
Dolphin is an indicator species. The presence of dolphin in a river system signals a healthy ecosystem. Since the river dolphin is at the apex of the aquatic food chain, its presence in adequate numbers symbolizes greater biodiversity in the river system and helps keep the ecosystem in balance.

Main threats to the Ganges River dolphin
The survival of the Ganges River dolphin is threatened by unintentional killing through entanglement in fishing gear; directed harvest for dolphin oil, which is used as a fish attractant and for medicinal purposes; water development projects (e.g. water extraction and the construction of barrages, high dams, and embankments); industrial waste and pesticides; municipal sewage discharge and noise from vessel traffic; and overexploitation of prey, mainly due to the widespread use of non-selective fishing gear.More than 50 dams and irrigation-related projects have had an adverse impact on the habitat of this species. These projects result in major changes in the flow, sediment load, and water quality of rivers, which affects the quality of waters downstream.
 
As a result, there has been a serious decrease in fish production, while the extraction of river water and siltation from deforestation are also degrading the species' habitat. In some cases, habitat alterations have resulted in the genetic isolation of dolphin populations.Pollution levels are a problem, and are expected to increase with the development of intensive modern industrial practices in the region. Compounds such as organochlorine and butyltin found in the tissues of Ganges River dolphins are a cause for concern about their potential effects on the subspecies. Although the killing of this dolphin for meat and oil is thought to have declined, it still occurs in the middle Ganges near Patna, in the Kalni-Kushiyara River of Bangladesh, and in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra. In fisheries for large catfish in India and Bangladesh, dolphin oil and body parts are used to lure prey, and Ganges River dolphins are used to this end.
 
Efforts have been made in India to test shark liver and sardine oil and fish offal to find an alternative for dolphin products. The latter appears promising.
 
Ganga river dolphins are listed in Schedule-1 of the wild life protection act thereby according them the highest degree of protection during hunting.
 
To mitigate the identified threats, WWF encourages local communities along a 164km-stretch of important dolphin habitat in the upper Ganges River to use natural fertilizers; not to dispose of domestic sewerage in the river; to improve sewerage management; to reforest the river bank; and to ban commercial fishing and sand-mining activities. WWF also monitors dolphin populations and threats in important dolphin habitats in other areas of the country.
 
Dolphin conservation has not figured in earlier attempts to clean the river — the Ganga Action Plan phase-I and phase-II were more focused on sewage treatment — though it was being run as a separate programme. The dolphin was also named the ‘National Aquatic Animal’ of India in 2009.
Nearly 50 per cent of the total population of dolphins in Ganga is now in Bihar.
Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal — have Dolphins Jharkhand, the other state through which the Ganga flows, does not have dolphins. Dolphin conservation was entirely dependent on the progress of the Ganga cleaning exercise. Dolphins breed in deep waters and feed in shallow waters. In the Ganga, excessive siltation has reduced the depth. A number of barrages and hydropower projects has interrupted the flow of water. In addition, the destruction of floodplains has affected the population of small fish which form the main diet of dolphins.
 
Irrawady river dolphins
They can survive both in fresh water and marine water. A small number of these are found in Myanmar, Indonesia and the Mekong river delta of south-east Asia. A few of them are in Bangladesh and in Orissa’s Chilka lake.
Dolphins do not breed in large numbers. On an average, a dolphin gives birth to five or six offspring during its life span, which is about 25 to 28 years.
 






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