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      Question and Answer

       Q. 338. Swachhta Hi Seva
      Ans.
      Government has launched a nationwide jan aandolan, Swachhta Hi Seva. It aims to encourage the whole country  to do mass Shramdaan for toilet making and cleaning of public places.

      “Swachhta Hi Seva” Campaign is an unprecedented campaign to highlight the jan aandolan that is the Swachh Bharat Mission. The objective of the campaign is to mobilise people between 15th September and 2nd October, reigniting the “jan aandolan” for sanitation.

      Government has also launched the Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities in the village which is the next major step in Swachhta after getting the villages Open Defecation Free.

      A World Bank study that says that lack of Sanitation costs the country 6% of GDP annually, and the weakest sections of society are the ones most affected by this problem. Lack of sanitation also results in the diseases transmitted by open defecation, concerns around dignity and safety of women, and economic loss to the family.

      The campaign has also called upon people from all sectors - elected representatives, corporates, NGOs, women, children, senior citizens, Panchayati Raj institutions, media and the youth - to come forward and contribute to the Swachh Bharat movement with vigour and enthusiasm. 
       
       Q. 337. Navika Sagar Parikrama
      Ans.
      Navika Sagar Parikrama is a project wherein a team of women officers of the Indian Navy would circumnavigate the globe. The circumnavigation of the globe has been flagged off on an Indian-built sail boat INSV Tarini. This is the first ever Indian circumnavigation of the globe by an all-women crew.

      The expedition has been titled ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’. It is aimed at promoting women empowerment in the country and ocean sailing by the Indian Navy. The expedition would inspire the youth of our nation to develop an understanding of the sea and instil a spirit of adventure and camaraderie.

      The expedition titled ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’, is in consonance with the National policy to empower women to attain their full potential. It also aims to help discard the societal attitudes and mindset towards women in India by raising visibility of their participation in challenging environment.

      The voyage of will finish around March 2018. The entire distance will be covered in five legs and it will have stop overs at four ports for replenishment of ration and repairs. The ports are: Fremantle (Australia), Lyttelton (New Zealand), Port Stanley (Falklands) and Cape Town (South Africa)
      Additional aims of the Expedition are as follows:-
      • Nari Shakti: In consonance with the National policy to empower women to attain their full potential, the expedition aims to showcase ‘Nari Shakti’ on the world platform. This would also help to discard the societal attitudes and mind-set towards women in India by raising visibility of participation by women in challenging environment.
      • Environment and Climate Change: The expedition aims at harnessing the use of environment friendly non-conventional renewable energy resources which affects the life of women.
      • Make in India: The voyage also aims to show case the ‘Make in India’ initiative by sailing onboard the indigenously built INSV Tarini.
      • Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave Data Observation: The crew would also collate and update Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave data on a daily basis for subsequent analysis by research and development organisations.
      • Marine Pollution: The crew would monitor and report marine pollution on the high seas.
      • Interaction with Local PIOs:  Since the expedition aims to promote Ocean Sailing and the spirit of adventure, the crew would interact extensively with the local PIOs at the various port halts. 
      INSV Tarini is a 55-foot sailing vessel, which has been built indigenously, and was inducted in the Indian Navy earlier this year, thus showcasing the ‘Make in India’ initiative on the World forum.
      Sailing encourages the use of environment friendly non-conventional renewable energy resources and this expedition therefore aims at harnessing the renewable energy.
       
       Q. 336. Institutions of Eminence
      Ans.
      The University Grants Commission has announced a scheme for public and private universities to seek the status of institutions of eminence. It will provide them freedom from the regular regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the scheme is to help institutions break into the top 500 global rankings in 10 years, and then break into the top 100 over time.

      Twenty institutions — 10 public and 10 private — will be given this status. The 10 state-run institutions will be given an additional benefit of Rs. 10,000 crore over a period of 10 years, over and above the regular grants.

      By March-April 2018, the chosen institutions will be accorded the status of “Institutions of Eminence” with a mandate to achieve world-class status over 10 years.

      Institutions in the top 50 of the National Institute Ranking Framework rankings or those which have secured ranking among top 500 of the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, QS University Rankings or Shanghai Ranking Academic Ranking of World Universities are eligible to apply to avail the benefits of the scheme. The mission will set up universities with all-India character and with international standards. 
       
       Q. 335. Space Junk
      Ans.
      Scientists are developing an ultra-thin spacecraft that can remove space debris which potentially threaten satellites or astronauts. The spacecraft will achieve this by enveloping junk in the Earth’s orbit and dragging it through the atmosphere, causing it to burn up.

      The craft is called Brane Craft and is being developed by US-based Aerospace Corporation. It is flexible and less than half the thickness of a human hair. The spacecraft will be bullet-proof. The spacecraft is designed to be resilient. Its microprocessor and digital electronics are fabricated in a way to ensure that if one component gets damaged, the others will continue to work. Brane Crafts will be powered by ultra-thin solar cells as well as a little bit of propellant.

      The Kessler syndrome is also called the Kessler effect which was proposed by the NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler in 1978. It is a scenario in which the density of objects in low earth orbit (LEO) is high enough that collisions between objects could cause a cascade where each collision generates space debris that increases the likelihood of further collisions. One implication is that the distribution of debris in orbit could render space activities and the use of satellites in specific orbital ranges infeasible for many generations.
       
       Q. 334. Project Insight
      Ans.
      The Income Tax department of Government of India will very soon launch Project Insight. The tax department will analyse mismatches in income declarations and spending patterns to trace tax evasions and black money. The government has recently made linking of PAN with Aadhaar mandatory. This was done to get a 360 degree view of a person’s income and assets. The project is part of the steps the government has taken to unearth and tax undeclared or illegal wealth. The steps include launch of ‘Operation Clean Money’ after demonetisation of old higher denomination currency for collection, collation and analysis of information on cash transactions, extensive use of information technology and data analytics tools for identification of high risk cases, expeditious e-verification of suspect cases and enforcement actions.

      It will use big data analytics to match information from social media sites to deduce mismatches between spending pattern and income declaration. The government had signed a pact with L&T Infotech for implementation of Project Insight. The project is designed to strengthen the non-intrusive information driven approach for improving tax compliance. Project has been initiated by the income tax department for data mining, collection, collation and processing of such information for effective risk management with a view to widen and deepen the tax base. It will help the taxmen monitor high value transactions, and curb the circulation of black money.

      The project will use technology to allow the government collate databases of IT returns, IT forms, TDS/TCS statements and Statement of Financial Transactions received from financial institutions. As part of project, a new Compliance Management Centralised Processing Centre (CMCPC) would also be set up for handling preliminary verification, campaign management, generation of bulk letters/notices and follow-up.
       
       Q. 333. C-17 Globemaster
      Ans.
      About
      US will sell India one C-17 transport aircraft. The proposed sale of C-17 transport aircraft by Boeing is estimated at a cost of is USD 366.2 million. The sale includes one missile Warning System, one Countermeasures Dispensing System, one Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Transponder and precision navigation equipment.

      C-17 Globemaster
      The Boeing C-17 Globemaster is a large military transport aircraft. It was developed for the United States Air Force (USAF) from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas. The C-17 commonly performs tactical and strategic airlift missions, transporting troops and cargo throughout the world. It can also perform medical evacuation and airdrop duties. The C-17 is capable of strategic delivery of up to 170,900 pounds of personnel and/or equipment to main operating bases or forward operating locations. C-17 has a fully integrated electronic cockpit and advanced cargo delivery system. It allows a crew of three: pilot, co-pilot, and loadmaster, to operate the aircraft on any type of mission.

      Significance
      • The Globemaster will improve India's capability to meet current and future strategic airlift requirements.  As India lies in a region prone to natural disasters therefore it will use the additional capability for humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.
      • The aircraft is capable short field landings with a full cargo load. It can also perform tactical airlift and airdrop missions as well as transport litters and ambulatory patients during aeromedical evacuation when required.
      • Also, the C-17 will provide more rapid strategic combat airlift capabilities for India’s armed forces.
      • India currently operates C-17 aircraft bought from Boeing, therefore Indian armed force will have no problem in absorbing the aircraft. Moreover, the proposed sale will not alter the basic military balance in the region. 
       
       Q. 332. Navika Sagar Parikrama
      Ans. Navika Sagar Parikrama is a project wherein a team of women officers of the Indian Navy would circumnavigate the globe. The circumnavigation of the globe has been flagged off on an Indian-built sail boat INSV Tarini. This is the first ever Indian circumnavigation of the globe by an all-women crew.

      The expedition has been titled ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’. It is aimed at promoting women empowerment in the country and ocean sailing by the Indian Navy. The expedition would inspire the youth of our nation to develop an understanding of the sea and instil a spirit of adventure and camaraderie.

      The voyage of will finish around March 2018. The entire distance will be covered in five legs and it will have stop overs at four ports for replenishment of ration and repairs. The ports are: Fremantle (Australia), Lyttelton (New Zealand), Port Stanley (Falklands) and Cape Town (South Africa)
      Additional aims of the Expedition are as follows:-
      • Nari Shakti: In consonance with the National policy to empower women to attain their full potential, the expedition aims to showcase ‘Nari Shakti’ on the world platform. This would also help to discard the societal attitudes and mind-set towards women in India by raising visibility of participation by women in challenging environment.
      • Environment and Climate Change: The expedition aims at harnessing the use of environment friendly non-conventional renewable energy resources which affects the life of women.
      • Make in India: The voyage also aims to show case the ‘Make in India’ initiative by sailing onboard the indigenously built INSV Tarini.
      • Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave Data Observation: The crew would also collate and update Meteorological/ Ocean/ Wave data on a daily basis for subsequent analysis by research and development organisations.
      • Marine Pollution: The crew would monitor and report marine pollution on the high seas.
      • Interaction with Local PIOs:  Since the expedition aims to promote Ocean Sailing and the spirit of adventure, the crew would interact extensively with the local PIOs at the various port halts.  
       
       Q. 331. National Sports Development Fund
      Ans. About: Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has created a National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) to bridge the gap of lack of sufficient facilities like qualified coaches/specialists, sports infrastructure and inadequate sponsors to sportspersons for their training/coaching and the sub-optimal performance of the athletes in the international sports events.

      Objectives:
      • To promote sports in general and specific sports disciplines and individual sports persons in particular for achieving excellence at the National and International level;
      • To impart special training and coaching in relevant sports disciplines to sports persons, coaches and sports specialists;
      • To construct and maintain infrastructure for promotion of sports and games;
      • To supply sports equipment to organizations and individuals for promotion of sports and games;
      • To identify problems and take up research and development studies for providing support to excellence in sports;
      • To promote international cooperation, in particular, exchanges which may promote the development of sports; and
      Resource: NSDF will mobilize resources from Government as well as non-government organizations and individuals.

      For: Institutions, government and non-government organizations exclusively dealing with promotion of sports and individual sportspersons of outstanding ability are eligible for getting financial assistance from NSDF for specific projects.
       
       Q. 330. Plastic waste
      Ans.
      The menace
      The quantum of solid waste is ever increasing due to increase in population, developmental activities, changes in life style, and socio-economic conditions. Plastics waste is a significant portion of the total municipal solid waste (MSW). The plastics waste constitutes two major category of plastics; (i) Thermoplastics and (ii) Thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics, constitutes 80% and thermoset constitutes approximately 20% of total post-consumer plastics waste generated in India. The Thermoplastics are recyclable plastics which include; Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE), Poly Vinyal Choloride(PVC), High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE), Polypropylene(PP), Polystyrene (PS) etc. Recycling of plastics should be carried in such a manner to minimize the pollution during the process and as a result to enhance the efficiency of the process and conserve the energy.

      The menace
      The Task Force on plastic pollution, set up by the Planning Commission in 2014 had estimated that 60 cities across the country generate over 15,000 tons of plastic waste every day—almost 6 million tons per year. Cattle and other animals, which freely move around the streets, unknowingly devour some of this plastic material, which is not digested but stays put in their stomachs leading to their eventual death. It is time that India ban plastic bags and related stuff before the water bodies, land and seacoasts are choked and menace turns into a manmade disaster.

      The landlocked African country Rwanda has banned plastic bags since a few years; Kenya has just announced a ban on plastic bags; Morocco has had such a ban for almost a decade.

      Plastic degrading microbes
      A lot of plastic waste from across the world eventually ends up in the oceans, which cover over 70% of the earth’s surface and hold 97% of the earth’s water. The amount of plastic rubbish reaching the oceans is 8 million tons per day. By 2050, there will be more plastic in the world’s oceans than fish. The huge amounts of plastic thrown in the oceans that keeps floating is hardly 1%, the rest sinks way down and/or are slowly being degraded or broken down.

      Researchers have partially succeeded to identify, isolate and study the biological species that seem to degrade plastics into small molecules. These plastics can be used for safer purposes. Scientists have identified certain species which are responsible for biodegradation of plastics, these are some fungi and bacteria. Two strains of the fungus aspergillus spp, found in the waters of the Gulf of Mannar degrade the plastic HDPE which is used to make milk and fruit juice bottles, grocery bags and such. These fungi release some enzymes which degrade HDPE, essentially breaking up the polymeric molecule into smaller pieces.

      Also, enzymes from the microbe named, Ideonella sakainesis are capable of breaking down the polymer PET (polyethylene terephthalate, used in making packaging trays, polyester clothing and others) into its basic monomeric molecules terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol which are used as building blocks for a variety of chemicals. The microbe is found in soil, sediment, waste water and similar material.

      Recently, scientists have shown that the fungus Aspergillus tubigensis can degrade plastic material called polyurethane or PU (used in the manufacture of car tyres, gaskets, bumpers, fibres, plastic foam, synthetic leathers).

      Scientists have concluded that microbes can be genetically modified to suit any intended purpose. This type of research will bring a great deal of benefit to not only terrestrial life forms but those living under water as well.
       
       Q. 329. Hortinet
      Ans.
      Hortinet is an integrated traceability system developed by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) for providing Internet based electronic services to the stakeholders for facilitating farm registration, testing and certification of Grape, Pomegranate and Vegetables for export from India to the European Union in compliance with standards. This mobile app initiative is expected to increase the accessibility and reach of the Traceability software system among the farmers and other stakeholders.

      This new Mobile app will also assist State Horticulture/ Agriculture Department to capture real time details of farmers, farm location, products and details of inspections like date of inspection, name of inspecting directly from field.

      Through this App not only the process of farmer and farm registration will become convenient but laboratory testing of product samples will also become easier. The level of agricultural exports is low considering that we have enormous population and most of what is produced is consumed domestically. Though we have only 2.2% share yet we are amongst the top 10 players in global agricultural trade. The efforts made by APEDA in promoting exports especially the use of traceability software has benefitted Indian agricultural trade and ensuring that importing countries get the product of  quality and standards that they desire.
       
       Q. 328. New model agriculture law and the Farm forestry sector
      Ans.
      The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has proposed a new model law, the Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Act, 2017.
      • It seeks to end the monopoly of APMC mandis and promote private players through wholesale markets, direct sale and purchase of agricultural produce, single market fee, and one-time registration for trade in multiple markets.
      • 12 states, namely Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Odisha, Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana, have agreed to implement the reforms.
      Farm forestry sector
      • The model law is expected to bring necessary reforms in the farm forestry sector, which has been listed along with allied activities such as livestock, poultry and bee-keeping to double farmers’ income by 2022.
      • The ministry is also working towards an electronic registration system which will ensure that once registered, farmers will not have to seek permission to harvest and transport the trees they plant.
      • These reforms are expected to provide the agro-forestry sector a much-needed boost through exemption of trees grown by farmers on private land from felling, a unified trading license, relaxation of transit rules and a single point levy of market fee.
      • Restrictions on felling of farm-grown trees, transit pass regulations and lack of access to markets have been the major reasons behind farmers’ disinterest and inability in utilising their lands for producing timber.
      • Agro-forestry in India needs an open policy in which the regulations are relaxed. States will have to work with the Centre in tandem to ensure implementation of the reforms.
      • Currently, farmers face many problems in plantation harvest and transit as tree felling is not regulated by one authority. Instead, the revenue and the forest department regulate tree felling and that too varies state wise. 
      • State governments can further help by notifying certain tree species as exempt from felling and transit. That would mean that the forest check-posts will not stop such species of timber from being transported.
      • Since the forests and wildlife are in the concurrent list of the Constitution, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change should consider an amendment in the Indian Forest Act, 1927, where for certain tree species, a central enactment of power be possible.
       
       Q. 327. What is a Hydrogen bomb? How is the reaction mechanism of Hydrogen bomb different from an atomic bomb?
      Ans.
      Nuclear weapons trigger an explosive reaction that shears off destructive energy locked inside the bomb’s atomic materials. A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction. That fusion stage is mashing hydrogen atoms together in the same process that fuels the sun. When these relatively light atoms join together, they unleash neutrons in a wave of destructive energy. Some advanced designs use fast neutrons produced by this second stage to ignite a third fast fission or fusion stage. The fission bomb and fusion fuel are placed near each other in a special radiation-reflecting container called a radiation case that is designed to contain x-rays for as long as possible. The result is greatly increased explosive power when compared to single-stage fission weapons. The device is colloquially referred to as a hydrogen bomb or, an H-bomb, because it employs the fusion of isotopes of hydrogen.

      Hydrogen bombs, or H-bombs, are far more powerful than the relatively simple atomic weapons. Atomic bombs rely on fission, or atom-splitting, just as nuclear power plants do. The hydrogen bomb can be 1,000 times more powerful. The technology of the hydrogen bomb is more sophisticated, and once attained, it is a greater threat. It can also be made small enough to fit on a head of an ICBM.
      The hydrogen bomb is the global standard for the five nations with the greatest nuclear capabilities: the US, Russia, France, the UK and China.
       
       Satellite technology and Border management
      The government will very soon use satellite technology for the Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) for better border surveillance. The government will dedicate satellite bandwidth for this purpose.
      Satellite technology will be used carry out the following activities:
      1. Monitor movement of Pakistani and Chinese troops in real time
      2. Track terrorist infiltration
      3. Map terrain
      4. Communicate effectively in remote areas
      5. Assess the strength of soldiers and artillery deployed by neighbours near the border in case of a stand-off.
      Significance
      Fortification is important because the: command, control, communication, surveillance, intelligence and reconnaissance abilities of border security forces need to become impregnable.
      Satellites can play an important role in border management. India has one of the best satellite technologies in Asia. Defence forces are already using space technology. Border forces depend on intelligence shared by central agencies like IB, RAW and National Technical Research Organisation. There is also the issue of poor communication in areas like Ladakh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Kashmir Valley. With satellite technology real-time information can be better monitored.

      Satellite and Armed forces
      India shares over 15,000km of borders with Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar. The armed forces currently use 13 ISRO satellites to watch land and maritime boundaries. The Navy has a dedicated military satellite, GSAT-7 or `Rukmini' which monitors the Indian Ocean Region.
      The recently launched Cartosat-2 series advanced remote sensing satellite has added more teeth to India's military surveillance capabilities because of its high resolution image processing technology.

      Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS)
      Under CIBMS the government is already providing:
      1. CCTV cameras
      2. Thermal image and night-vision devices
      3. Battlefield surveillance radar
      4. Underground monitoring sensors
      5. Laser barriers
      These are helping to track movement from the other side along the border. The integrated set-up ensures that if one device doesn't work, another alerts the control room in case of a transgression. 
       
       Q. 326. Why malnutrition is not just a health related problem in India? What steps can be taken to tackle the incidence of malnutrition in the country?
      Ans.
      Nutrition is an issue of survival, health and development for current and succeeding generations. Child born underweight have impaired immune function and increased risk of diseases such as diabetes and heart diseases in their later life. Malnourished children tend to have lower IQ and impaired cognitive ability, thus affecting their school performance and then productivity in their later life. Nutritional health of all age groups represents our National Economic Asset.

      Improving the nutritional status of the population is imperative for National Development. Under nutrition in young children is a major public health problem in India. The NFHS-4 has not shown an encouraging improvement in the nutritional status, especially among women and children. As per NFHS-4 the level of underweight has decreased by 6.8% and is stunting by 9.6%. Level of anaemia has decreased by 11% as compared to NNHS-3 figures. The Union health budget is just over 1% of the total GDP as compared to the World Health Organization’s recommended 5%. The budget for ICDS in the last two years has been cut by almost 50% and the National Food Security Act, 2013 is yet to be implemented.

      Tackling malnutrition:
      1. Ensure better coordination among various ministries
      2. Improve data collection on stunting and obesity
      3. Invest heavily in social welfare programmes
      4. Make welfare delivery mechanisms more accountable
      5. Allow panchayats a bigger say in running welfare schemes
      6. Diversify the Public Distribution System
      7. Strengthen and expand on nutrition schemes for adolescent girls
      8. Strengthen MGNREGA to ensure better food security
      9. Revive and safeguard forests as sustainable sources of food
      10. Improve access to public healthcare for poorer communities
      Malnutrition is not to be viewed merely as an offshoot of poverty having adverse effects on health and development of individuals but as a national problem that results in loss of productivity and economic backwardness. Therefore it is important that we the improve nutrition at the individual level. Thus, series of convergent and well coordinated actions in different sectors are required to be undertaken in the mission mode approach to address this big network problem of malnutrition.
       
       Q. 325. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
      Ans.
      Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana  (PMMVY) is a Maternity Benefit Programme that is implemented in all the districts of the country in accordance with the provision of the National Food Security Act, 2013.

      Objectives of the programme include providing partial compensation for the wage loss in terms of cash incentives so that the woman can take adequate rest before and after delivery of the first living child. The cash incentive provided would lead to improved health seeking behaviour amongst the Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM).

      Target beneficiaries of the programme include all Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers, excluding PW&LM who are in regular employment with the Central Government or the State Governments or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force.

      A beneficiary is eligible to receive benefits under the scheme only once. In case of miscarriage/still birth, the beneficiary would be eligible to claim the remaining instalment(s) in event of any future pregnancy. A beneficiary is eligible to receive benefits under the scheme only once. That is, in case of infant mortality, she will not be eligible for claiming benefits under the scheme, if she has already received all the instalments of the maternity benefit under PMMVY earlier.

      Benefits under PMMVY include cash incentive of Rs 5000 in three instalments. The eligible beneficiaries would receive the incentive given under the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) for Institutional delivery and the incentive received under JSY would be accounted towards maternity benefits so that on an average a woman gets Rs 6000.
       
       Q. 324. Farmer Zone
      Ans.
      The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under the Ministry of Science and Technology has convened the Smart Agriculture Conclave. The objective of this conclave is to set “FarmerZone” - a collective open-source data platform for smart agriculture which will use biological research and data to improve the lives of small and marginal farmers. It is envisaged that “FarmerZone” will help cater to all needs of the farmer, from dealing with climate change, weather predictions and soil, water, and seed requirements to providing market intelligence.

      The conclave has identified the challenges faced in each agro-climatic region, it has also discussed possible solutions through scientific interventions. The FarmerZone platform will connect farmers and scientists, government officials, thought leaders in agriculture, economists and representatives from global companies who work in the big-data and e-commerce space to bring about technology-based localised agri-solutions.

      The platform will work on getting relevant quality data related to agriculture into the cloud, develop sentinel sites to help link with farmers and evolve PPP based enterprises for data delivery.
      “FarmerZone” that will focus on solutions in the farming ecosystem, especially for small and marginal farmers.” 
       
       Q. 323. YUVA initiative
      Ans.
      ‘YUVA’ is an initiative by Delhi Police, it aims to connect with youth by upgrading their skill as per their competencies. It will help them to get a gainful employment under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna under the Ministry of Skill Development.

      Delhi Police has tied up with National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) for providing mass job linked skill training for the selected youth. National Skill Development Corporation shall be providing skill training to the youth under ‘Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna’ (PMKVY) and CII will provide job linked training through its Sector Skill Councils who are connected to industry and thereby provide job guarantee.

      The youth coming for skill training in a police station building will be a huge step in building up their confidence and faith in police organization and will go a long way in building a positive image of police in the long run.