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Question and Answer :: SRIRAM'S IAS

Civil Services Exam Preparation

 Q. 9. What is Oppari?
Tamil oppari, or oppaari, is a distinctively South Indian genre of weeping songs performed primarily by grieving women, or by professional male musicians mostly from Harijan caste communities. Oppari is most commonly identified as the grieving song of a widow at the funeral of her husband. It is the folk tradition that grieves the death of men through story and song.
 Q. 8. Who is Dutee Chand? What has been the controversy about her?
Dutee Chand is an Indian professional sprinter and current national champion in the women's 100 metres event. She is the third Indian women to ever qualify for the Women's 100 metres event at the Summer Olympic Games, with PT Usha having qualified for the event in 1980 Summer Olympics. Chand was dropped from the Commonwealth Games contingent in 2014 after the Athletic Federation of India stated that hyperandrogenism made her ineligible to compete as a female athlete. But she won the right to compete in 2015. 
Hyperandrogenism, or androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens in the body and the associated effects of these excessive levels of androgens. In international sports and the Olympic Games, a female athlete is not eligible to participate in the female category if the amount of androgenic hormone exceeds the permissible limits, on the ground that the condition could confer an unfair advantage.
 Q. 7. What is Global Peace Index? How is it measured? Account for India's position in it?
The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness. It is the product of the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and developed in consultation with an international panel of peace experts from peace institutes and think tanks with data collected and collated by the Economist Intelligence Unit.  It ranks 163 countries.
In attempting to gauge peacefulness, the GPI investigates the extent to which countries are involved in ongoing domestic and international conflicts. It also seeks to evaluate the level of harmony or discord within a nation; ten indicators broadly assess what might be described as a safety and security in society. The assertion is that low crime rates, minimal incidences of terrorist acts and violent demonstrations, harmonious relations with neighboring countries, a stable political scene and a small proportion of the population being internally displaced or refugees can be equated with peacefulness. The GPI has been criticised for not including indicators specifically relating to violence against women and children.
India was recently ranked 141 on a Global Peace Index with violence taking a 680-billion dollar toll on its economy in 2015.
Iceland was ranked as the world’s most peaceful country, followed by Denmark and Austria.
The report said, “India’s scores for ongoing domestic and international conflict and militarisation have deteriorated slightly. The country remains vulnerable to acts of terror and security threats at its shared border with Pakistan.
According to the report, world became a less peaceful in 2016, mainly on account of increased terrorism and higher levels of political instability.
Rankings of 81 countries have improved but deterioration in another 79 outweighed these gains.
 Q. 6. It is found that teenagers in urban India are a distressed lot. What are the reasons? What is being done?
The serious mental distress experienced by a growing number of young people, particularly teenagers, as a result of family breakdown, school-related stress, bullying, cyber bullying and 24/7 online culture. As a result, young people are struggling with mental health problems and are more likely to abuse alcohol, drugs and prescription medication in an attempt to switch off from distressing feelings. Health services like de-addiction centres, voluntary sector, education and  social care –  should work together to make sure everything possible is being done to ensure those at risk are being offered the right services in the right places.
Hon. Prime Minister took up the larger issue of drug addiction in his Man Ki Baat.
 Q. 5. What do you know of The Permanent Court of Arbitration
It  is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands. The PCA is not a court, but  a bureaucracy that provide services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes between member states, international organizations, or private parties arising out of international agreements.The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade. It should not be confused with the International Court of Justice which is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations, while the PCA is not a UN agency.
 Q. 4. What is the difference between virtual reality vs. augmented reality?
Virtual reality (VR) is an artificial, computer-generated simulation or recreation of a real life environment or situation. It immerses the user by making them feel like they are experiencing the simulated reality firsthand, primarily by stimulating their vision and hearing. VR is typically achieved by wearing a headset like Facebook’s Oculus equipped with the technology, and is used prominently in two different ways:

To create and enhance an imaginary reality for gaming, entertainment, and play (Such as video and computer games, or 3D movies, head mounted display).
To enhance training for real life environments by creating a simulation of reality where people can practice beforehand (Such as flight simulators for pilots).

Virtual reality is possible through a coding language known as VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) which can be used to create a series of images, and specify what types of interactions are possible for them.

Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that layers computer-generated enhancements atop an existing reality in order to make it more meaningful through the ability to interact with it. AR is developed into apps and used on mobile devices to blends digital components into the real world in such a way that they enhance one another, but can also be told apart easily.
 Q. 3. What is an industrial corridor? Where are they coming up in India? How do they benefit the people?
An industrial corridor is a package of infrastructure spending allocated to a specific geographical area, with the intent to stimulate industrial development.An industrial corridor aims to crease an area with a cluster of manufacturing or other industry. Such corridors are often created in areas that have preexisting infrastructure, suchas ports, highways and railroads. These modalities are arranged such that an "arterial" modality, such as a highway or railroad, receives "feeder" roads or railways. Concerns when creating corridors including correctly assessing demand and viability, transport options for goods and workers, land values, and economic incentives. Benefits stem from growth, employment, investments, incomes,infrastructure, FDI and the downstream effects that include fiscal collections going up to enable the government to spend on poor. Examples include
1. Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project
2. Shendra – Bidkin Industrial Park
3. Chennai Bangalore Industrial Corridor
4. Amritsar Delhi Kolkata Industrial Corridor
5. Vadrevu and Nizampatnam Port Industrial Corridor/VANPIC
6. Udhana-Palsana Industrial Corridor
 Q. 2. Poverty is a cognitive tax. Analyse the statement.
Ans. The evidence now is fairly strong that people have cognitive limitations that lead them not to process all the available information. Poor people in particular suffer from a lot of cognitive constraints. Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir  developed the idea of a “scarcity mindset”. The key finding is that poverty is a cognitive tax; it depletes our resources.

Poor people cant afford nutritious  food and thus their cognitive capacities become stunted. Because poverty is a vicious cycle, it is almost inherited. Our cognition is limited -- we can only think about a limited number of things at one time, and when the number of things we have to pay attention to goes beyond a certain threshold, we start making errors. Poor people have a lot more things they have to pay attention to. Poor people have to keep track of the price of everything they require. There's no room for error. If they spend too much on the milk , they will not be able to  afford the bread.

That's only  one of the many taxes on the cognitive load of poor people. David Graeber's Utopia of Rules details another: thinking of  what rich people are thinking. Poor people who antagonise the  rich people face reprisals far beyond those that rich people can expect from each other or from poor people.
This isn't unique to cash-poverty. Mullainathan talks of  "time poor" -- being overburdened with immediate livelihood concerns. This scarcity depletes  thoughtful attention to longer-term  priorities.

From the policy side, apart from developmental interventions, we also need to bring about behaviour changes as in Swachh Bharat against open defecation. Also, simplify government programmes. Too many programmes are too complicated  for poor to come on board  — that itself is a cognitive tax.
 Q. 1. What is Chilcot Inquiry? State its findings.
Ans. The Iraq Inquiry, also referred to as the Chilcot Inquiry after its chairman, Sir John Chilcot, is a British public inquiry into the nation's role in the Iraq War. The inquiry was announced in 2009 by Prime Minister Gordon Brown.

The Inquiry had broad terms of reference to consider Britain's involvement in Iraq between 2001 and 2009. It covered the run-up to the conflict, the subsequent military action and its aftermath with the purpose to establish the way decisions were made, to determine what happened and to identify lessons to ensure that in a similar situation in future, the British government is equipped to respond in the most effective manner in the best interests of the country.

On 6 July 2016 Sir John Chilcot published the report. The report stated that Saddam Hussein did not pose an urgent threat to British interests, that intelligence regarding weapons of mass destruction was presented with too much certainty, that peaceful alternatives to war had not been exhausted, that the United Kingdom and United States had undermined the authority of the United Nations Security Council and that a war in March 2003 was unnecessary.

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