sriramias old rajinder nagar
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      Question and Answer

       Q. 418. Loktak Lake
      Ans.
      Loktak Lake
      Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India and is famous for the phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil and organic matter at various stages of decomposition) floating over it. The lake is located near Moirang in Manipur state, India. Located on this phumdi, Keibul Lamjao National Park is the only floating national park in the world. The park is the last natural refuge of the endangered Sangai (state animal) or Manipur brown-antlered deer.

      This ancient lake plays an important role in the economy of Manipur. It serves as a source of water for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. The lake is also a source of livelihood for the rural fishermen who live in the surrounding areas and on phumdis, also known as “phumshongs”. Considering the ecological status and its biodiversity values, the lake was initially designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention on 23 March 1990. It was also listed under the Montreux Record.
       
       Q. 417. Electronic waste
      Ans.
      Electronic waste
      Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal are also considered e-waste. Informal processing of e-waste in developing countries can lead to adverse human health effects and environmental pollution. Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs, contain potentially harmful components such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominated flame retardants. Recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to health of workers and communities in developed countries and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaking of materials such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes.

      The Global E-waste Monitor 2017, a joint effort of the ITU, the United Nations University (UNU) and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA),  provides the most comprehensive overview of global e-waste statistics and an unprecedented level of detail, including an overview of the magnitude of the e-waste problem in different regions. The report includes up-to-date information on the amounts of e-waste generated and recycled, makes predictions until 2021, and provides information on the progress made in terms of e-waste legislation. The e-waste volumes are indicative of the recycling industry’s potential to recover secondary resources, as well as setting environmental targets for detoxification. The report highlights the need for better e-waste data and information for policymakers to track progress, identify the need for action, and to achieve sustainable development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
       
       Q. 416. Methanol Economy Fund
      Ans.
      Methanol Economy Fund
      Niti Aayog is planning to set up a Methanol Economy Fund worth Rs 4,000-5,000 crore to promote production and use of the clean fuel. The government is aiming at generation of the fuel by converting high ash content coal into methanol. Such a plant is expected to be set up by Coal India.
      Methanol fuel is cheaper, safer and pollution free. In India methanol can be produced at Rs 16-21 per litre. Methanol can be used as an energy producing fuel, transportation fuel and cooking fuel. It will also cut down India’s oil import bill by an estimated 20 per cent.
      Unlike CNG, using methanol as a transportation fuel would require minimal alteration in the vehicles. China is the world’s largest producer of methanol. The Niti Aayog is also working on converting certain diesel-powered rail engines to work on methanol. The boats and ships used in the inland waterways initiative are also run on methanol.
       
       Q. 415. Manipur Sangai Festival-2017
      Ans.
      Manipur Sangai Festival-2017
      Every year the State of Manipur celebrates the “Manipur Sangai Festival” from 21st to 30th November. The ‘Festival’ is named after the State animal, Sangai, the brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur. It started in the year 2010 and has grown over the years into a big platform for Manipur to showcase its rich tradition and culture to the world. The festival is labeled as the grandest festival of the State today and helps promote Manipur as a world class tourism destination. Every edition of the festival showcases the tourism potential of the state in the field of Arts & Culture, Handloom, Handicrafts, Indigenous Sports, Cuisine, Music and Adventure sports of the state etc.
      The festival reflects the State’s proud cultural heritage and the love for art which is inherent amongst various tribes inhabiting the State of Manipur. The State’s classical dance form, ‘Ras Leela’ is quite famous all over the world for its distinctiveness from any other dance forms in India. The Ras Leela will form an important part of the dance performances at the Manipur Sangai Festival 2017 besides the various other folk dance performances like the Kabui Naga dance, Bamboo dance, Maibi dance, Lai Haraoba dance, Khamba Thoibi dance etc. which will be showcased at the festival.
      The festival will also bring to light an array of Manipur’s best indigenous handlooms and handicrafts products.
      Indigenous sports will also be a major highlight of the State’s biggest tourism festival this year. Manipur’s famous martial arts- Thang Ta (a combination Spear & Sword skills), Yubi-Lakpi (a game played with greased coconut like rugby), Mukna Kangjei (a game that combines hockey and wrestling), and Sagol Kangjei- Modern Polo (believed to have evolved in Manipur) will all form part of the festival. 
       
       Q. 414. NATIONAL AYUSH MISSION (NAM)
      Ans.
      NATIONAL AYUSH MISSION (NAM)
      Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India launched National AYUSH Mission (NAM) during 12th Plan for im­plementing through States/UTs. The basic objective of NAM is to promote AYUSH medical systems through cost effective AYUSH services, strengthening of educational systems, facilitate the enforcement of quality control of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani & Homoeopathy (AYUSH) drugs and sustainable availability of AYUSH raw-materials. It envisages flexibility of implementation of the programmes which will lead to substantial participation of the State Governments/UT. The NAM contemplates establishment of a National Mission as well as corresponding Missions in the State level. NAM is likely to improve significantly the Department’s outreach in terms of planning, supervision and monitoring of the schemes.

      Vision:
      1. To provide cost effective and equitable AYUSH health care throughout the country by improving access to the services.
      2. To revitalize and strengthen the AYUSH systems making them as prominent medical streams in addressing the health care of the society.
      3. To improve educational institutions capable of imparting quality AYUSH education
      4. To promote the adoption of Quality standards of AYUSH drugs and making available the sustained supply of AYUSH raw-materials.
      Objectives:
      1. To provide cost effective AYUSH Services, with a universal access through upgrading AYUSH Hospitals and Dispensaries, co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres (CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs).
      2. To strengthen institutional capacity at the state level through upgrading AYUSH educational institutions, State Govt. ASU&H Pharmacies, Drug Testing Laboratories and ASU & H enforcement mechanism.
      3. Support cultivation of medicinal plants by adopting Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) so as to provide sustained supply of quality raw-materials and support certification mechanism for quality standards, Good Agricultural/Collection/Storage Practices.
      4. Support setting up of clusters through convergence of cultivation, warehousing, value addition and marketing and development of infrastructure for entrepreneurs.
       
       Q. 413. Workings of solar wind flows
      Ans.
       
      Workings of solar wind flows
      The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with thermal energy. The solar wind varies in density, temperature and speed over time and over solar latitude and longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona, which in turn is a result of the coronal magnetic field. The solar wind affects other incoming cosmic rays interacting with planetary atmospheres. Moreover, planets with a weak or non-existent magnetosphere are subject to atmospheric stripping by the solar wind. Earth itself is largely protected from the solar wind by its magnetic field, which deflects most of the charged particles; however some of the charged particles are trapped in the Van Allen radiation belt. A smaller number of particles from the solar wind manage to travel, as though on an electromagnetic energy transmission line, to the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere in the auroral zones. The only time the solar wind is observable on the Earth is when it is strong enough to produce phenomena such as the aurora and geomagnetic storms.

      A group of researchers from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad, have, for the first time, figured out the conditions under which certain types of solar storms can flow towards the earth and affect its atmosphere. This is important because such storms contain charged particles travelling at very high speeds and these can affect the electronics present on satellites in orbit around the earth.

      Such solar storms have two causes: Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR). CMEs are huge explosions of charged particles extending beyond the sun’s corona or outer layer and can be visibly observed. CIRs are much more complicated and difficult to observe. CMEs can be detected by a coronagraph when they are ejected from the Sun. CIRs are generated in the interplanetary medium and there are no visual signatures for CIRs.

      Charged particles are being spewed continually out of the sun’s corona, forming the solar wind. Some parts of these winds move faster than others. Since they contain charged particles in a plasma state, these different regions physically interact with each other to form wavelike disturbances called CIRs that emanate from the sun and spiral outwards. They are called “corotating” interaction regions as they rotate along with the sun, attached to it at one end.

      The sun goes through cyclic variations with a period of eleven years during which sunspot activity increases to a maximum and then decreases. 
       
       Q. 412. Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
      Ans.
      Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
      The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is a multilateral export control regime. It is an informal and voluntary partnership among 35 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying above 500 kg payload for more than 300 km. The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) was established in April 1987 by the G7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
      India has officially joined the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) as a full member. India by joining the MTCR become the 35th member of the MTCR.

      Benefits of joining MTCR
      • Benefit to ISRO: During the cold war years, Russia denied cryogenic technology to India. However, in a welcome change ISRO will now have access to restricted high-end technologies for developing its cryogenic engines in order to enhance space exploration.
      • Sale of BrahMos: India will be able to sell the Indo-Russian supersonic cruise missile BrahMos to Vietnam and other countries in a development that would make India a significant arms exporter.
      • Procurement of Israel's Arrow II missile: In its bid to develop indigenous Ballistic Missile System, India wanted to procure Arrow II theatre missile defence interceptor from Israel but was denied due to the MTCR sanctions. The newly-forged membership will help India in the procurement of Arrow II, which will further help India defend itself against Pakistani or Chinese ballistic missiles.
      • Buying surveillance drones: India will be able to buy surveillance drones from other countries like the American Predator drones (e.g. the Avenger drone). The US might also consider exporting UAVs, Reaper and Global Hawk, which have been key to counter-terrorism efforts in countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan and Yemen.
      • Boost to Make in India: Indian technology that will be developed or made under the flagship of Make in India will see free movement out of the country, which in turn will contribute to the success of the programme.
      • Step closer to NSG: The accession to MTCR is one step closer to India's membership to the 48-member NSG (Nuclear Suppliers Group). It also gives India a chance to engage with other global non-proliferation players. 
       
       Q. 411. North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme
      Ans.
       
      North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme
      The Union Cabinet has approved the introduction of new Central Sector Scheme of “North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme” (NESIDS) from 2017-18 with 100% funding from the Central Government to fill up the gaps in creation of infrastructure in specified sectors till March, 2020.

      Features of NESIDS:
      The new scheme will broadly cover creation of infrastructure under following sectors:
      Physical infrastructure relating to water supply, power, connectivity and specially the projects promoting tourism;
      Infrastructure of social sectors of education and health.

      Benefits of NESIDS:
      The assets to be created under the new scheme of NESIDS will not only strengthen health care and education facilities in the region but will also encourage tourism thereby the employment opportunities for local youth. The scheme will act as a catalyst in overall development of the region in the years to come.
      The Union Cabinet has also approved the continuation of the existing Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) scheme with funding pattern of 90:10 till March, 2020 with an outlay of Rs.5300.00 crore. It would enable completion of ongoing projects. 
       
       Q. 410. Banglar Rasogolla
      Ans.
      Banglar Rasogolla
      West Bengal's famous Banglar Rasogolla has got Geographical Indication (GI) tag from the Indian patent office. The state has trumped Odisha which had reportedly sought the coveted status for its rasogolla. The two states had claimed for getting the GI tag.
      Banglar Rasogolla is a syrupy dessert popular in all over India and abroad.
      Odisha has claimed that the sweet originated from the Jagannath Temple in Puri, where it is a part of the religious rituals since the 12th century. Odisha calls it Pahala Rasgulla. On the other hand, West Bengal had asserted that confectioner Nobin Chandra Das is widely known as the one, who created Rasgulla in the 1860s.
      A GI is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. Such a name conveys an assurance of quality and distinctiveness which is essentially attributable to its origin in that defined geographical locality.
       
       Q. 409. Mission Parivar Vikas
      Ans.
      Mission Parivar Vikas 
      Mission Parivar Vikas, a central family planning initiative has been launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The key strategic focus of this initiative is on improving access to contraceptives through delivering assured services, ensuring commodity security and accelerating access to high quality family planning services.
      The mission is being implemented in 146 high focus districts with the highest total fertility rates in the country. These districts are in the seven high focus, high Total Fertility Rates (TFR) states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Assam, which constitute 44% of the country’s population.
      The main objective of the Mission Parivar Vikas family planning initiative is to bring down the Total Fertility Rate to 2.1 by the year 2025.
      The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has also launched two new contraceptives. MPA under the ‘Antara’ programme, an injectable contraceptive and ‘Chhaya’, a contraceptive pill is aimed to expand the contraceptive choices to meet the emerging needs of couples. The contraceptives are available for free in Medical Colleges and District Hospitals at present. The contraceptives are safe and highly effective.  The ‘Antara’ the injectable contraceptive is effective for three months and the ‘Chayya’ the contraceptive pill for one week. These will help meet the changing needs of couples and help women plan and space their pregnancies.
      The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, through its sustained family planning efforts, aims to achieve its goal of increasing modern contraceptive usage and ensure that 74% of the demand for modern contraceptives is satisfied by 2020, with continued emphasis on delivering assured services, generating demand and bridging supply gaps. The Ministry’s focus remains on increasing awareness and demand through a holistic communications campaign.
       
       Q. 408. Kumbh Mela
      Ans.
      Kumbh Mela
      The Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage under UNESCO has inscribed ´KumbhMela´ on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity during its 12th session being held at Jeju, South Korea.
      Kumbh Mela inscribed on the UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river. Traditionally, four fairs are widely recognized as the Kumbh Melas: the Haridwar Kumbh Mela, the Allahabad Kumbh Mela, the Nashik-Trimbakeshwar Simhastha, and Ujjain Simhastha. These four fairs are held periodically at one of the following places by rotation: Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayaga), Nashik district (Nashik and Trimbak), and Ujjain. The main festival site is located on the banks of a river: the Ganges (Ganga) at Haridwar; the confluence (Sangam) of the Ganges and the Yamuna and the invisible Sarasvati at Allahabad; the Godavari at Nashik; and the Shipra at Ujjain.
      According to medieval Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu dropped drops of Amrita (the drink of immortality) at four places, while transporting it in a kumbha (pot). These four places are identified as the present-day sites of the Kumbh Mela.
       
       Q. 407. Safe city surveillance
      Ans. Safe city surveillance
      The state government of Bihar has decided to introduce a "safe city surveillance" system across state to check sexual harassment and crime. It will be implemented in phases, beginning with Patna district. CCTV cameras will be installed under this and approval has been given to spend Rs 111 crore on the scheme. The scheme will be implemented by the state home department and sources said that the network of CCTV cameras will be connected to a control room that will be monitored 24x7 by police personnel, who will continuously liase with those on duty on the ground, all the while anticipating and alerting them about possible situations. People apprehending trouble and danger could also alert the control room, which will initiate action. The CCTV net around the public places will also help track miscreants. The scheme will be implemented in all the districts in a phased manner.
       
       Q. 406. LaQshya
      Ans.
       
      LaQshya
      The Union government has launched ‘LaQshya’ (Labour Room Quality Improvement Initiative) a Safe Delivery Mobile Application for health workers who manage normal and complicated deliveries in the peripheral areas.
      The goal of this initiative is to reduce preventable maternal and new-born mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity OT and ensure respectful maternity care. It also aims to improve the quality of care that is being provided to the pregnant mother in the Labour Room and Maternity Operation Theatres, thereby preventing the undesirable adverse outcomes associated with childbirth. This initiative will be implemented in Government Medical Colleges (MCs) besides District Hospitals (DHs), and high delivery load Sub- District Hospitals (SDHs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs). The initiative plans to conduct quality certification of labour rooms and also incentivize facilities achieving the targets outlined. The goal of this initiative is to reduce preventable maternal and new-born mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity OT and ensure respectful maternity care.

      Other important initiatives in the health sector
      National Health Policy 2017 has been approved which envisages the attainment of the highest possible level of health without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence. The Government has taken concrete steps to reduce the Out Of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE).
      Mission Indradhanush, one of the largest global public health initiatives was launched in 2014. In its four phases till date, MI has successfully reached over 25 million children in over 528 districts.
      Since 2014, government has launched Rotavirus vaccine, Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV), and the Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccine, and also the JE vaccine for adults. 
       
       Q. 405. Samba Masuri
      Ans.
      Samba Masuri
      Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in association with the Indian Institute of Rice Research (IIRR) has developed an Improved Samba Masuri (ISM). ISM is not only resistant to bacteria blight but also has a low Glycemic Index (GI) considered suitable for those with diabetes.
      ISM has low GI of 50.99 which is among the lowest value for several rice varieties tested and usually in the range of 53 to 69.
      ISM also has desirable attributes like better yield and fine grain type enhancing market potential and profit for farmers.
      Its not a transgenic plant. It is already being grown in 1.50 lakh hectares last year in seven rice breeding states including Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, TS, TN, UP, etc. In two/three years’ time, the scientists are confident of coming out with a new variety of rice which can not only give high yields but also be resistant to three different pests affecting rice crop with field trials currently on.

      Glycemic Index (GI)
      GI value of a food is determined by feeding 10 or more healthy people a portion of the food containing 50 grams of digestible (available) carbohydrate and then measuring the effect on their blood glucose levels over the next two hours.
      Consumption of food with low GI results in slow release of glucose into the bloodstream reducing the ill-effects of diabetes.
       
       Q. 404. Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES)
      Ans. Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES)
      GES is the preeminent annual entrepreneurship gathering that convenes emerging entrepreneurs, investors and supporters from around the world. This year’s Summit will highlight the theme Women First, Prosperity for All, and will focus on supporting women entrepreneurs and fostering economic growth globally.  GES 2017 will create an environment that empowers innovators, particularly women, to take their ideas to the next level. GES with networking, mentoring, and workshops, aims to empower entrepreneurs to pitch their ideas, build partnerships, secure funding, innovate, and find their target customers -- creating new goods and services that will transform societies.  
       
       Q. 403. Elected Women Representatives of Panchayati Raj Institutions
      Ans.
      The Ministry of Women and Child Development has launched an intensive training program for Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) of Panchayati Raj Institutions and Master Trainers. This capacity building program is being organized by National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) of the WCD Ministry which will ultimately train approximately twenty thousand EWRs covering nearly 50 EWRs from each district by March, 2018.

      Training two lakh women sarpanches across the country will help bring following important changes:
      1. It will help to create model villages.
      2. It will help prepare women as political leaders of the future.
      The training program will include simple engineering skills will give them an insight into women’s issues as well as focus on education and financial matters.
      The Capacity building of Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) is critical to empower women to participate effectively in the governance processes. This will help them assume the leadership roles expected of them and guide their villages towards a more prosperous future.